Static Partition in Linux

In this article, I am going to show how to create partitions and how to increase and decrease static partition!

I am doing this practical on RedHat Linux.

First, let’s understand what is partitioning and why we need it?

🔰 Partitioning in Linux 🔰

  • The process of dividing a disk into logical areas that can be worked with separately is called partitioning.
  • Creating disk partitions enables you to split your hard drive into multiple sections that act independently.
  • In Linux, users must structure storage devices (USB and hard drives) before using them.
  • Partitioning is also useful when you are installing multiple operating systems on a single machine.
  • multiple operating systems on the same disk.
  • different file systems on different partitions.
  • more efficient disk space management.
  • different security settings on different partitions.
  • easier backup procedure.

Partitions types can be:

  • Primary — Holds the operating system files. Only four primary partitions can be created.
  • Extended — Special type of partition in which more than the four primary partitions can be created.
  • Logical — Partition that has been created inside of an extended partition.

The logical partition is basically same as primary partition. You can create a file system in a logical partition and store files and directories in it. On the other hand, the extended partition is container of logical partitions, so you cannot create any file systems in it.

🔰 Creating Partition 🔰

  • Run the following command to list all the attached devices.
# fdisk -l
  • The output contains information about storage disks and partitions.

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  • Select the storage disk you want to create partitions on by running the following command:
# fdisk <disk-name>

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  • Enter ‘n’ command to create a new partition.
  • Enter ‘p’ command to create a primary partition.
  • Select the partition number by typing the default number ‘1’.
  • After that, you are asked for the starting and ending sector of your hard drive.
  • For starting sector, it is best to type the default number in this section or press Enter.
  • The last prompt is related to the size of the partition. You can choose to have several sectors or to set the size in megabytes or gigabytes. For eg.-Type +5G to set the size of the partition to 5GB.
  • A message appears confirming that the partition is created.
  • After creating new partition, enter p again to display created partition.
  • Don’t forget to press ‘w’ to save the changes made by partition in the disk.

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  • Verify that the partition is created by running the following command:
# lsblk
  • The output shows that 5G partition is created from a device /dev/sdd of 10G.

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  • Once a partition has been created, format it before using it.
  • Format the partition by running the following command:
# mkfs.ext4 <device-name>
  • To begin interacting with the disk, create a mount point or folder and mount the partition to it.
  • Create a mount point or folder by running the following command:
mkdir <folder-name

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  • Verify that the mounted folder of 5G is created by running the following command:

🔰 Store Data on Partitioned Disk 🔰

  • To store data on partitioned disk, we already created a mounted folder.
  • So, go inside ‘/static’ folder.
  • Enter some data in the file.

🔰 Increasing Partition 🔰

  • First unmount the partition using the following command:
# umount /static
  • Then, to confirm that this folder is no longer available for storage run the following command again,
# df -h

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  • Select the storage disk you want to delete partitions on by running the following command:
# fdisk <disk-name>
  • Enter ‘d’ command to delete partition.
  • Then follow same steps as before to create a primary partition.
  • The last prompt is related to the size of the partition. Enter increased size as before.
  • In this case, Typing +8G to increase the size of the partition from 5GB.
  • Enter ‘N’ when asked to remove the signature.
  • Make sure not to remove the signature when you the increase partition, otherwise you will lose the data stored on partition before.

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  • To scan the disk to check if any error or corrupt file exist in partition, run the following command:
# e2fsck -f <disk-name>

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  • To reformat the partition, use the following command:
# resize2fs <disk-name>

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  • Now, again mount the partition on same folder as before.
  • Also, run ‘df -h’ to check if partition is mounted.
  • The output shows that the size of ‘/static’ folder is 8G.

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  • After reformatting and re-mounting the partition, check if previous data still exists.
  • The output shows that data is preserved even after increasing the partition!

Conclusion

In this article, I have completed the task to create partition on a Linux system. And how to increase that partition without losing the data on that partitioned disk.

A Technical Writer

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